Almost every Indian kid is aware of the message as enunciated in the Indian scripture Gita as a part of the Mahabharta, the largest epic of the world to this date. The message is “Karmanaye ba Adihkar Astu, Ma Flashu Kadachana.” Meaning thereby you have got control & right over action but not over the fruit/result of the same. Or say expecting or dreaming around fruit/result before doing action is antithetical. Of course in the present context and at the face level this appears to be very trivial proposition. But it is not. Ironically this dictum which serves as epitome of Hinduism is one of the most misinterpreted and scoffed at religious dictum. ‘Gita’ is regarded to be last Upnishad ( scriptures dealing with the right and wrong of personal & social life as per the concept of divine justice) which offers the gist of entire Hindu philosophy of life, if not Religion/Dharma, and serving as guideline for leading a trouble free personal & social life leading to salvation after fulfillment. Lots of people interpret it in their own way but practically under the sway of Geminite approach this is the most scoffed at message as to what it means by saying that go on doing effort but don’t worry about result because you have got right over action but not fruit. I am writing this post to remind about certain concept as presented onward fourth paragraph , specially.
In this context it is essential to point out that Gita is alluding towards Karma, not Kama. Karma stands for action which has bearing on other’s psychology at the personal plane. Kama stands for actions which are of physical nature including sex. Then Adhikar word has dual but correlated meaning -that is Control and Right. Let us focus on ‘Control’ part first.
What Gita is basically trying to highlight is that desires are source of all trouble. Now what are desires? A desire means the requirement whose fulfillment is not preordained. But something preordained means it is beyond our control. Meaning thereby it has implied or implicit faith in soul & destiny concept which is always preordained and may be represented through astrological chart. (However, Krishna has no explicit idea of Astrology, though his self realization was complete. The concept of Astrological chart and prediction was introduced by Parashar Muni, father of the Author of Mahabharta, based on Vedantic concepts and other subsequent literature. It was almost the time Krishna took birth. Krishna is regarded to be case of the rebirth of Rama or being second incarnation of Vishnu.) So there cannot be anything like freewill. Will/Soul is itself bondage. Freewill stands for only the evolutionary force, as embedded in every soul, which may give birth to latent desires leading to fulfillment in coming generations.
So properly speaking those actions of individual which would necessarily bear fruit are preordained and can be said to be Karma. Rest all are Kama even if it appears to be Karma at the face level. So in a sense both one’s Karma and its Fruit/Result are preordained, but Kama may be anything. But as said nobody can have idea of, and hence control over, preordained thing. So it is useless to brood over fruit in advance. Sometimes Kama may have indirect effect of being Karma, however, the two are distinguishable. But how to distinguish which of the thoughts is desire, and which is preordained. The solution lies in the message that the way to cross over this dilemma is that don’t expect that all of your actions/Karma will bear fruit. It may or may not, depending upon whether it is preordained or not. Then it also not sure as to when the fruit will come. Nature has rolling plan in this respect. We earn the fruit of not only our Karma also but that of our forefathers. So don’t brood over the result. One should take action as a fun, but shunning violence, and forget it. If Karma has been guided by a preordained requirement it will bear fruit in right time without any more worrying about it.
Then there comes the issue of ‘Right’. We know that everybody’s thoughts are relative and composite in nature. It depends upon not only one’s own mindset but also upon what others feel about us, and as an earning of one’s relation/action, good or bad whatever. As per Gita all trouble starts with Right(Adhikar) concept. When we assume right over other person it may lead to ego hassles and ego clash. This is also summed up as ‘suffering from attachment’. But if we don’t assume right over the other side then we ourselves find the way to overcome the ego barrier and take right decision in right time and develop a good relation. This helps one to find a solution of one’s problem and requirement. If we don’t believe in it we are always likely to fall for others ill wishes or effect of evil spirit. Amidst such situation generally it is suggested that one should try to strengthen one’s own ‘will’. This stands for exactly giving up one’s sense of Right over the other person. Having a sense of right over other person, for fulfilling one’s temporal or physical requirement, stands for having decided the fruit in advance, that is before doing relevant and right action which is antithetical. However it is good in part of only seers, or those who are in mentor role of someone, to teach such message to others. In the way of Karma reminding anybody such thing amounts to giving way to desire. Duryodhan (the negative side of Mahabharta) reminded Krishna about latter’s own conviction in this respect, though by challenging for war. So, sometimes apparent setbacks may also serve as way to good future. Hence it is the justification for the message of Gita.
Then the other concept which Gita introduced was that of Yoga. This stands for unifying of all of one’s own tendencies. Self realization is the first prerequisite for it. The aim of Meditatory yoga is self realization by weeding out all desire born thoughts. The factors of yoga remain hidden within one soul. Yoga also stands for complete unification of the aspiration of mother and father regarding the future of their children. This is in keeping with Hermetic principles( of Greek origin) ‘Know thyself- therein lays hid the treasure of treasure”, (as it was highlighted earlier also in the post captioned ‘Forbidden Fruit”. Just as psychology is described in term of Yung’s concept of id, ego and superego similarly there are three level or stages of Yoga- Bhakti (devotional which may not necessarily connote something religious), Gyan (knowledge orientation), Karm ( action oriented which necessarily have the concept of being preordained). A person can be said to be belonging to, to have born at, a particular stage of Yoga depending upon the evolutionary paradigm of lineage. A complete personality means that which have further attained the unification of all the three level of Yogas. Lord Krishna is ascribed to have attained or being endowed with such factors by birth.
However the Satanic forces always try to find means to dismantle any concept which ensure order. Then the Satanic forces are helpless in this respect. It is not a matter of any requirement or conviction. This is implied in the scheme of evolution because sometimes ‘order’ may stand for continuing with status-quo ad-infinitum. But still everybody regards oneself to be representing truth. Satanic forces may not necessarily stand for an individual. However its predominance may lend such an impression around. So we as a human being are not supposed to give in to any such philosophical prescriptions. We have to fight and to act for our existence and happiness. Karma concept of Gita is the only solution as per our conviction. However finally Truth alone triumphs, that is to say God’s wish, or the predetermined evolutionary course, is Supreme.
Gita also lays thrust on the concept of Divine justice.The concept of inexorable laws of Divine justice encompasses the law of karma into it. Divine justice is a little relative in nature meaning thereby also depends on the power of soul of the individual. It is matter of self realization, keeping one’s action in consonance with the reality & cause of one’s own being and trying to accept moral codes of social order. It partially depends upon the law of survival of fittest as well. Amidst all these it expects the subject to realize the voice of the evolutionary aspect of all pervading omnipresent God or to say to serve as the vector of God’s wish. This model of justice is also dependent on the bonds of affection and enmity that one creates with one’s fellow beings in the course of enjoyment. These bonds give rise to bipolar desires causing the soul to pass through successive cycle of rebirths. As per a few religions Divine justice is retributive in nature but basically it is compositely oriented towards the salvation of everyone born on the earth. So ‘law of karma’ has both individual and social dimension, taking into account the ‘law of soul- as being part of Braham’ and being subservient to the dictates of evolutionary force. In statecraft this model of justice cannot be transcribed but a realization of the same imparts capability & insight into the adjudicator to be able to dispense right justice.
Gita is an epitome of three fundamental pillars of Hinduism namely-Law of Karma, Immortality of Soul and Transmigration of soul also called rebirth theory. Rebirth theory is a later stage of introduction in order to establish the concept of detachment. This is because even if one somehow follows and adheres to the concept of detachment in relation to other worldly relations and joys & sorrows , it becomes difficult to overcome parental attachment from which person is born. Detachment is an axiom as last stage in the prescription of truth. So rebirth theory gives death blow to this final thread of attachment that is parental attachment. However it does not mean that every soul is subjected to rebirth. Ordinary soul may wither away with course of time.
There is a metaphorical interpretation of Gita around Mahabharta war as a whole, that the Chariot on which Arjuna rode in the war represents the physical aspect of one’s being. The five horses stand for five senses of individual. Krishna stands for sixth sense or intuition, called Vivek, which keeps the five senses under control. Arjuna represents the action part of one’s being at the dictates of intuition. Kurushetra( the battle field where the war was fought) is this world of desires and relations. The more all of those are in unison and under mutual command of each other the more are the chance of winning this war of life.
Gita emphasize upon keeping check over the instinct of Kamas so that it may not interfere with Karmas and waste the limited quota of energy meant for Karma. The Gita reiterates that when the mind is free from impulses and flaws, the mind becomes stable and the person becomes neutral when the impulses of the mind and the other senses are in control, then only the mind is freed from instability and perturbations. Often Gita is described as a paradigm of
Bhkati Yoga (worship and devotional state of knowledge),
Gyan Yoga (complete knowledge of God, nature and soul)
Karma Yoga (knowledge based actions leading to happiness, fulfillment and salvation).
(The post is continued on to another post captioned ‘Heavenly Rights-Part II’.)…………..